Social justice is justice in relation to the distribution of wealth, opportunity, and privilege within a society. In Western and Asian cultures, the concept of social justice often refers to the process of ensuring that people fulfill their social roles and receive their fair share of society. In current social justice movements, the focus is on breaking down barriers to social mobility, creating safety nets and economic justice. Social justice assigns
rights and duties in society's institutions and allows people to receive the basic benefits and burdens of working together. Relevant institutions often include taxes, social security, public health, public schools, public services, labor law, and market regulation to ensure the distribution of wealth and equal opportunity.
Interpretations that relate justice to a mutual relationship with society are mediated by differences in cultural traditions, some of which emphasize individual responsibility to society and others the balance between access to power and its responsible use. Therefore, today social justice is expressed in reinterpretations of historical figures such as Bartolomé de las Casas, in philosophical debates about the differences between people, in efforts for gender, ethnic and social equality, in advocacy for justice for migrants, prisoners, the environment and physical and developmentally disabled people.
Although the concepts of social justice can be found in classical and Christian philosophical sources, from Plato and Aristotle to Augustine of Hippo and Thomas Aquinas, the term social justice finds its first use in the late 18th century, albeit with theoretical meanings or unclear practices. The use of the term was soon accused of redundancy and rhetorical flourishes, perhaps but not necessarily related to expanding a vision of distributive justice. Taparelli coined and defined the term
in Luigi Taparelli's social science treatise on natural law in the early 1840s, establishing the principle of natural law that paralleled the evangelical principle of brotherly love—i.e.My. social justice reflects the duty one has to the other self in the interdependent abstract unity of the human person in society. After the 1848 revolutions, the term was popularized more generally through the writings of Antonio Rosmini-Serbati.
At the end of the Industrial Revolution, American jurists of the Progressive Era began to use the term more widely, notably Louis Brandeis and Roscoe Pound. It has also been incorporated into international law and institutions since the early 20th century; The preamble to the founding of the International Labor Organization recalled that "universal and lasting peace can only be achieved if it is based on social justice".“In the late 20th century, social justice became central to the philosophy of Social Contract , principally by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice. In 1993, the Vienna Declaration and Program of Action treated social justice as a human rights purpose.
The different concepts of justice as discussed in ancient Western philosophy typically centered on the community to which it is best suited." In an article for J.University N.V, author D.R. Bhandari says: "For Plato, justice is both a part of human virtue and the bond that unites man in society. It's the identical quality that makes good and social.Justice is order and duty of the parts of the soul; it is for the soul as health is for the body. Plato
says that justice is not mere power, but that it is harmonious power. Justice is not the law of the strongest, but the effective harmony of the whole. All moral concepts revolve around the good of the whole - individually and socially."
Plato believed that rights exist only between free people and that the law "should primarily take into account the unequal conditions in which individuals are treated in relation to theirs value and only secondarily from relations of equality.Echoing this era, which typified slavery and the subjugation of women, ancient visions of justice tended to reflect the rigid class systems that still prevailed. On the other hand, for privileged groups, there were strong concepts of justice and community.
Distributive Justice Aristotle said it was necessary that goods and wealth be distributed to people according to their merits.
Socrates is credited with developing the idea of a social contract, according to which people must follow the rules of a society and accept its burdens because they have In the Middle Ages, religious scholars such as Thomas Aquinas in particular continued the discussion of justice in a variety of ways.